The VPTCS model Visibility - Perception - Technical - Content - Services, by Élie Sloïm and Éric Gateau - 2001


The VPTCS (Visibility – Perception – Technical – Content – Services) model was born between 2000 and 2001 as part of work carried out on the website. After a first article entitled “Chronological evaluation of a site by its users” published at the beginning of 2000, Élie Sloïm and Éric Gateau, the authors of the model, created a directory of links dedicated to web quality. After analyzing the links in the directory and doing the equivalent of a card sorting session, they arrived at this five-point model. For several years, the model was presented as a simple tool for understanding web quality. In recent years, it has been adopted by more and more players for uses that were not at all planned or designed at the time of its creation.

Quick video explanation

Here’s a video excerpt from the ‘Mastering Web Quality Assurance’ certification training, featuring Élie Sloïm, CEO and founder of Opquast, and co-author of the VPTCS model.

This is the VPTCS model, which means Visibility Perception Technical Content and Services. This model reads in chronological order relating to three major phases: Before, during and after the user visits the website. With this model, you are not only interested in the interface but in the user experience as a whole. The UI or user interface is covered by the three central sections of the model. Perception Technical and Content. Visibility leads us to take an interest in why and how the user arrived . But that is not enough. You also have to understand why he's coming and what he wants to take with him when he leaves. Then we have to look at the services part. This model allows you to understand part of the UX and above all, it allows you to explain simply the difference between ux and ui and that is very important. The vptcs model led to the birth of the Opquast best practices. We have created discussion forums which are asked to discuss each rule to establish a consensus list of rules. We have over 200 best practices they are widely used by web professionals and have a very long lifespan.


In french,Va Pas Te Croire Supérieur (by Franck Paul) means: don’t think you’re superior. Bertrand Matge proposed Very Powerful Tool for Customer Satisfaction. Both great examples – thanks guys! If you have suggestions for mnemonics in English, please send them our way.

Public talks

The VPTCS model has been presented many times by Elie Sloïm in conferences and trainings. It gave rise to a specific conference by Éric Gateau and Élie Sloïm at the ParisWeb 2019 conference.

Here is the presentation of this conference:

License and rights of reproduction

License Creative Commons
The VPTCS model is made available under the terms of
the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License 4.0 International.
  • You have the right to use this template on the express condition that you comply with the two rules below:
    • If you decide to modify or share this content, you must maintain a similar license.
    • You are required to quote the authors: Elie Sloïm and Eric Gateau

Different uses of the VPTCS model

VPTCS is a conceptual model. It is a simplified and partial representation of reality. It can be used to understand, organize, measure and predict. Here are a few illustrative examples.

Understanding and structuring user requirements

The VPTCS model lists five basic user requirements:

  • Visibility: Find the site
  • Perception: Using the site
  • Technical: That the site works
  • Content: That the contents are of good quality
  • Services: That what happens after the visit is of good quality

Explain in a simple way the difference between UX and UI

  • The interface is represented by a content services perception block.
  • Experience is represented by the five pillars of the model.

Mapping the businesses and linking them to user requirements

Trades associated to each requirement

Web jobs can be linked to any one of the requirements. Of course, a job is in fact linked to several requirements, but the model shows the priorities and sensitivities.

  • Visibility : referencing, marketing, communication
  • Perception: ergonomics, usability, UI graphics
  • Technical: safety, performance
  • Content: drafting, legal, internationalization
  • Services: After-sales service, customer relations, e-commerce

Divide the responsibilities within the web project

VPT = providers / CS = ownership

The model differentiates the boundaries and responsibilities of providers and clients.

  • Providers: Visibility, Perception, Technical
  • Clients and trades: Content and Services

Listing best practices

The model was used as a starting point for the design of the Opquast Web Quality Assurance Best Practices Checklist.

Identify the costs of the web project

Hervé Bichot used the template to list the posts of the web project. He drew from it:

Auditing a website

Hervé Bichot also used the model to extract an audit guide.

Credits and license

  • The authors of the model are Elie Sloïm et Eric Gateau
  • Delphine Malassingne used the model and the book to create a graphic presentation of the model. She then summarized all the readings of the model in the form of a global computer graphic.
  • Suzanne Decrème designed the VPTCS icons during a conference given by Elie Sloïm in Sophia Antipolis. We reused her icons at the ParisWeb conference.

Now it’s your turn!

Do you have uses, articles, representations, interpretations, or proposals for the VPTCS model? Let us know! If your proposals are unique and useful, we can reference them on this page.